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Friday, July 7, 2017

Pre-Coordinate Indexing Systems: An Overview


Chain Indexing
·                Developed by Dr. S. R. Ranganathan
·                called chain procedure of subject indexing or simply Chain Indexing
·                It is a method of deriving alphabetical subject entries from the chain of successive subdivisions of subjects needed to be indexed leading from general to specific level
·                According to Ranganathan, chain indexing is a “procedure for deriving class index entry (i.e. subject index entry) which refers from a class to its class number in a more or less mechanical way.”
·                The term ‘chain’ refers to a modulated sequence of subclasses or isolates
·                basic steps in chain indexing are
1.             Represent the class number in the form of a chain in which each link consists of two parts: class number and its verbal translation in standard term or phrase used in the preferred classification scheme
2.            Prepare ‘see’ references for each alternative and synonymous term used in the specific as well as subject reference headings
3.            Merge specific subject entries, subject references and ‘See’ references and arrange them in single alphabetical sequence.
4.           Determine different kinds of links: sought, unsought, false and missing links.
5.            Derive subject reference heading for the subject reference from each of the upper sought links.
6.           Derive specific subject heading for the specific subject entry from the last sought link and moving upwards by taking the necessary and sufficient sought links in a reverse rendering or backward rendering process
7.            Classify the subject of a document by following a preferred classification scheme.

Coates’s Subject Indexing
·                Developed by E. J. Coates
·                From the contributions of Cutter, Kaiser and Ranganathan, the concept of Term Significance was drawn
·                Coates has developed the idea of Thing and Action like Kaiser’s Concrete and Process

COMPASS (Computer Aided Subject System)
·                In 1990, it was decided to revise UKMARC and to replace PRECIS by a more simplified system of subject indexing As a result Computer Aided Subject System (COMPASS) was introduced for BNB from 1991.

Cutter’s Rules for Dictionary Catalogue
·                It was Charles Ammi Cutter who first gave a generalised set of rules for subject indexing in his Rules for a Dictionary Catalogue (RDC) published in 1876.
·                Cutter never used the term ‘indexing’; he used the term ‘cataloguing’.

Kaiser’s Systematic Indexing
·                Developed by Julius Otto Kaiser
·                It is a systematized alphabetical subject heading practice
·                Kaiser was the first person who applied the idea of Cutter in indexing micro documents in the library of Tariff Commission as its librarian
·                He categorized the component terms into two fundamental categories: (1) Concrete and (2) Process.
·                Concrete refers to l Things, place and abstract terms, not signifying any action or process.
·                Process refers to
·                Mode of treatment of the subject by the author
·                An action or process described in the document
·                An adjective related to the concrete as component of the subject. In short, Kaiser’s achievements regarding subject indexing are:
·                categorization of composite terms through classificatory approach for the first time;
·                a general rule of order of precedence, i.e. the ‘process’ term should follow  the ‘concrete’ term;
·                definition of those terms, of which ‘process’ is identified properly, that is, he         gave the characteristics of ‘process’ by which it can be identified properly;
·                double entry system for a subject dealing with place/locality; and elaborate system of references.

POPSI (POstulate-based Permuted Subject Indexing)
·                Developed by Dr G Bhattacharyya, 1984
·                POPSI does not depend on the class number.
·                is based on Ranganathan’s postulates and principles of general theory of classification.
·                It uses the analytic-synthetic method for string formulation and permutation of the constituent term in order different approach point to the document.
·                There are two entries classification:
1.       Organizing classification 
2.      Associative classification 
·                According to Bhattacharyya there are four elementary categories:
                 A= ACTION
                 P= PROPERTY
                 E= ENTITY
                 D= DISCIPLINE

PRECIS (PREserved Context Index System)
·                Developed by Dereck Austin in 1974
·                an alternative procedure for deriving subject headings and generating index entries for British National Bibliography (BNB) which since 1952, was following Chain Indexing.
·                Syntax and Semantics of PRECIS
·                PRECIS consist of two inter-related sets of working procedures:
               1. Syntactical
               2. Semantic
·                The PRECIS is based on two principles
               1. Principle of Context Dependency
               2. Principle of One-to One Relationship
·                to achieve the principle of context-dependency, Two-Line-Three-Part entry structure is followed in PRECIS
·                Formats of PRECIS Index : There are three kinds of format in PRECIS:
              1. Standard Format,
              2. Inverted Format and
              3. Predicate Transformation

Relational Indexing
·                devised by J. E. L. Farradane in 1950
·                This indexing systems also known as the “System of Relational Analysis”
·                Two or more isolates linked by relational operators
·                Relational operators are special symbols which link the isolates to show how they are related and each operator is denoted by a slash and a special symbol having unique meaning
·                Farradane’s marked improvement in the area of subject indexing was:
                   analysis of relationship among terms;
                   use of relational operators; and
·                one to one relationship among analets.


Thanks for Visiting 
Asheesh Kamal


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