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Tuesday, November 1, 2016

LIS Important Short Questions (Episode-20)

Acquisition Number
A unique number used by the acquisitions department of a library to identify a specific bibliographic item on a purchase order. Some libraries use a standard number such as the ISBN (International Standard Book Number) or ISSN (International Standard Serial Number) as the acquisition number.
The process of selecting, ordering, and receiving materials for library or archival collections by purchase, exchange, or gift, which may include budgeting and negotiating with outside agencies, such as publishers, dealers, and vendors, to obtain resources to meet the needs of the institution's clientele in the most economical and expeditious manner. Also refers to the department within a library responsible for selecting, ordering, and receiving new materials and for maintaining accurate records of such transactions, usually managed by an acquisitions librarian. In small libraries, the acquisitions librarian may also be responsible for collection development, but in most public and academic libraries, this   responsibility is shared by all the librarians who have an active interest in collection building, usually on the basis of expertise and subject specialization. For a more detailed description of the responsibilities entailed in acquisitions, please see the entry by Liz Chapman in the International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science (Routledge, 2003). 
Acquisitions Section (AS)
Created in 1991, AS is the section of the Association for Library Collections and Technical Services (ALCTS) within the American Library Association (ALA) charged with (1) promoting the effective acquisition of informationresources in all formats, through purchase, lease, and other methods, in all types of institutions; (2) developing sound ethical, fiscal, and legal policies and procedures in acquisitions management, including relationships with suppliers; and (3) assessing and advancing awareness of the organization and role of the acquisitions function within the library and in relationships with other functional areas (purchasing, accounting, collection management, etc.). 
American Indian Library Association (AILA)
Founded in 1979, AILA is an affiliate of the American Library Association with a membership of individuals and institutions committed to promoting the development, maintenance, and improvement of library services and collections for Native Americans, particularly cultural and information resources needed on reservations and in communities of Native Americans and Native Alaskans. AILA publishes the quarterly AILA Newsletter. 
A form of manuscript or printed music book, popular in the 16th and 17th centuries, in which the vocal or instrumental parts of an ensemble composition are displayed in a manner that enables the performers to read their parts while seated across or around a table. This was accomplished by inverting the parts on the upper half of the verso and recto of each opening, or by inverting the entire recto page in relation to the verso. The system was later expanded to accommodate as many as eight players. 
A three-character numeric code in the range of 0XX-9XX with XX = 01-99, used in the MARC record to identify the kind of data contained in a field. The numbering system allows fields to be grouped by function in hundreds. In fields requiring authority control, the second and third character positions in the tag indicate parallel content. According to Betty Furrie, approximately 10 percent of all MARC tags are used in most bibliographic records; the other 90 percent are used infrequently (Understanding MARC Bibliographic Machine-Readable Cataloging). For books, the most frequently used tags are:
010 tag - Library of Congress Control Number (LCCN)
020 tag - International Standard Book Number (ISBN) and terms of availability
040 tag - cataloging source
050 tag - Library of Congress call number
100 tag - personal name main entry (primary author)
130 tag - uniform title main entry
240 tag - uniform title
245 tag - title and statement of responsibility (title proper, name of part/section of work, remainder of title, etc.)
246 tag - varying form of title (cover title, parallel title, spine title, etc.)
250 tag - edition (edition statement, other information about edition)
260 tag - publication, distribution, etc. (imprint)
300 tag - physical description (collation)
440 tag - series statement added entry (title)
500 tag - general note
504 tag - bibliography note
505 tag - formatted contents note
520 tag - annotation or summary note
600 tag - personal name subject added entry
610 tag - corporate name subject added entry
650 tag - topical subject heading
651 tag - geographic name subject added entry
700 tag - personal name added entry (joint author, editor, illustrator)
710 tag - corporate name added entry (other than subject or series)
800 tag - series personal name added entry
830 tag - series uniform title added entry
Also refers to a character string attached to a portion of text in an HTML, SGML, or XML document, usually at the beginning and end, to identify elements of the file, specify formatting, or establish a link. To see the tags in this hypertext dictionary, click on "View" or its equivalent in your Web browser and then select the option "Page Source" or "View Source."
The three-digit content designators (called tags), used to identify fields in the MARC record, are grouped by function in hundreds as follows, with XX in the range of 00-99:
0XX tags - Bibliographic control numbers and coded information
1XX tags - Main entries
2XX tags - Titles, edition, imprint
3XX tags - Physical description, etc.
4XX tags - Series statements
5XX tags - Notes
6XX tags - Subject added entries
7XX tags - Added entries other than subject or series; linking fields
8XX tags - Series added entries and holdings
9XX tags - Fields for local use
A classified display in a thesaurus of indexing terms showing the complete hierarchy of descriptors, from the broadest to the most specific, usually by indention, sometimes with a tree number indicating the location of the heading in the tree, as in the Medical Subject Headings. Tree Structures developed and maintained by the National Library of Medicine:
Diagnosis, Cardiovascular
Angiography, Digital subtraction
Cerebral angiography
QR code
An abbreviation of Quick Response code. A type of two-dimensional barcode invented in 1994 by a subsidiary of Toyota for use in the automotive industry (see this example). QR codes have far greater data storage capacity than standard UPC barcodes and can be decoded at high speed. QR codes storing addresses and Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) may appear on almost any object (books, periodicals, signage) to direct users to additional information (example). Click here to learn more about QR codes, courtesy of Wikipedia, and here to learn how QR codes are used in libraries.
The profession devoted to applying theory and technology to the creation, selection, organization, management, preservation, dissemination, and utilization of collections of information in all formats. In the United States, often used synonymously with library science. A person formally trained or certified to perform such services is a librarian. Librarianship is a very old profession. The founder and organizer of the great classical library at Alexandria(c. 300 B.C.) was Demetrius of Phaleron. The ancient Egyptians and Babylonians probably had librarians to organize and preserve their extensive collections of papyrus scrolls and clay tablets. 
The total accumulation of books and other materials owned by a library, cataloged and arranged for ease of access, often consisting of several smaller collections (reference, circulating books, serials, government documents, rare books, special collections, etc.). The process of building a library collection over an extended period of time is called collection development. Synonymous with holdings. Compare with collection. See also: digital collection, high-risk collection, hybrid collection, opening day collection, rental collection, subject collection, and test collection.
An edition, often of a children's book, published in a binding stronger and more durable than the usual publisher's binding, for marketing specifically to libraries, usually more expensive than the trade edition of the same title. See also: library binding and prelibrary binding.
Educational programs designed to prepare students for the postbaccalaureate degree of M.L.S. or M.L.I.S., taught by the faculty of a university department known as a library school (or school of librarianship). Modern library education began in 1887 when Melvil Dewey founded the first school for training professional librarians at Columbia University. See also: Association for Library and Information Science Education and information studies.
Mechanical and electronic devices purchased by a library for staff use or to facilitate patron use of its services and collections, including photocopy machines, microform reader-printers, video and CD players, projection equipment, computers and computer peripherals, security devices, office equipment, etc.
Programs and activities that enable a library or library system to deliver traditional services outside the physical walls of its facilities, including bookmobiles, books-by-mail,   and direct delivery of library materials to patrons. Compare with outreach.
The physical structure housing a library, or part of a library, as distinct from the collections and equipment it contains, and the personnel who operate and maintain it. A library facility can be stand-alone or a multi-purpose structure of which the library is one of two or more components. Some libraries in the United States occupy landmark buildings, for example, the New York Public Library at 5th Avenue and 42nd Street in Manhattan. See also:auxiliary facility, Carnegie library, expansion, new construction, and renovation.
In the plural (facilities), the term is often used for the physical conveniences of a library building that are designed to facilitate the use of services and resources, such as a reading room, listening and/or viewing room, instruction lab, children's room, meeting room, conference room, cybercafe, gift shop, etc.
The professionally trained librarians employed at an academic institution that grants faculty status to librarians. One of the advantages of faculty status is the right to participate in governance. At some institutions, library faculty are members of the same collective bargaining unit as the teaching faculty. Whether they are eligible for tenure and promotion to the same ranks as the teaching faculty depends on the contract governing employment.
Laws passed by a federal or state legislative body pertaining to or affecting the interests of libraries and related institutions (example: Digital   Millennium Copyright Act of 1998). Through their professional associations, librarians and library advocates seek to influence legislative decision-making in ways that will benefit libraries and their users. Federal legislation affecting libraries is summarized in Library and Book Trade Almanac. Each May, the American Library Association co-sponsors National Library Legislative Day with the District of Columbia Library Association. Click here to explore the ALA's Web site on issues and advocacy. Synonymous with library law.
The body of published information pertaining to libraries, library and information science, and librarianship,including books, journal articles, 
conference proceedings, reports, guidelines and 
standards, etc. 
The literature of the profession is indexed in Library   Literature & Information Science (LLIS), published by H.W. Wilson, and in Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA). New publications are reviewed in the "Professional Media" section of Library Journal. Library and Book Trade Almanac includes a selective bibliography ("The Librarian's Bookshelf") of professional literature published in the last three years, arranged by specialization, with a list of library periodicals at the end.
In automated systems, an integrated set of applications designed to perform the business and   technical functions of a library, including acquisitions, cataloging, circulation, and the provision of public access. In alphabeticalorder, the leading vendors of library management software are: Auto-Graphics, EOS International, Ex Libris, Follett, Innovative Interfaces, Polaris Library Systems, SirsiDynix, TLC, and VTLS. Synonymous with integrated library system (ILS).
The portion of the market for books and other publications generated by sales to libraries, library systems, and related organizations such as museums, archives, and research institutions. The library market is segmented by type of library (public, academic, school, special, etc.). Publishers and jobbers market their products to libraries by exhibiting at library conferences, advertising in library trade journals and review publications, offering special library discounts and prepublication prices, and direct mail advertising (trade catalogs and brochures).
All the items purchased by a library or library system to satisfy the information needs of its users, including books, newspapers and periodicals, reference materials, music scores, maps, microforms, and nonprint media, as distinct from equipment and supplies. Some libraries include subscriptions to electronic resources in the materials budget; others fund them separately. Except for gifts and special endowments, the acquisition of library materials is normally funded through the operating budget. The rapid escalation of journal subscription prices over the past decade has forced many academic libraries to cancel periodical subscriptions to maintain balance between expenditures for books and serials.
When the Library of Congress began printing catalog cards in 1898 and distributing them in 1901, a unique Library of Congress Card Number was assigned to each item for identification and control. With the development of machine-readable cataloging in the late 1960s, LCCN became the Library of Congress Control Number. It is used in bibliographic records and also in authority and classification records. The LCCN is assigned to a publicationafter the deposit copy is received by the U.S. Copyright Office or in advance of the publication date if a publisher requests cataloging-in-publication.
A comprehensive survey of the works published in a particular field of study or line of research, usually over a specific period of time, in the form of an in-depth, critical bibliographic essay or annotated list in which attention is drawn to the most significant works. Click here for tips on writing a literature review, courtesy of UC Santa Cruz. An annual review is a type of serial devoted to the publication of literature reviews. Synonymous with literature survey and review of the literature. See also: systematic review.
In scholarly journals, particularly those publishing original research in the physical and social sciences, the first section of each article, devoted to a review of the previously published literature on the subject, with references in the text to footnotes or a list of works cited at the end.
An exhaustive search for published information on a subject conducted systematically using all available bibliographic finding tools, aimed at locating as much existing material on the topic as possible, an important initial step in any serious research project. Compare with ready reference.
An intergovernmental network established under the auspices of UNESCO to develop and maintain an international registry of serial publications containing the information necessary for identification and bibliographic control, including the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) and key title. The ISSN center for the United States is the National Serials Data Program (NSDP) administered by the Library of Congress. Click here to connect to the Web site maintained by the ISSN International Centre in Paris, France.
A set of standards adopted in 1971 by the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA), governing the bibliographic description of items collected by libraries. The general standard ISBD(G) serves as a guide for describing all types of library materials. Standards have also been developed for specific formats: ISBD(CM) for cartographic materials, ISBD(PM) for printed music, ISBD(S) for serials, etc. ISBDs have been integrated into several catalog codes around the world, including AACR2.
A unique ten-digit standard number assigned to identify a specific edition of a book or   other monographic publication issued by a given publisher, under a system recommended for international use by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1969. In the ISBN system, media such as audiorecordings, videorecordings, microfiche, and computer software are considered monographic publications, but serials, music sound recordings, and printed music are excluded because other identification systems have been developed to cover them. The ISBN is usually printed on the verso of the title page and on the back of the dust jacket of a book published in hardcover, or at the foot of   the back cover in paperback editions. In AACR2, the ISBN is entered in the standard number and terms of   availability area of the bibliographic description.
An alphanumeric code assigned to identify printed music available for sale, hire, or free of charge. Used in music publishing, the music trade, and libraries, the ISMN uniquely identifies a title issued by a given publisher in a particular edition. The ISMN is not used for sound recordings (audiotapes, CDs, etc.), videorecordings, or books about music. Music publications issued in series can have both an International Standard Serial Number and an ISMN, the ISSN identifying the ongoing serial and the ISMN an individual title in the series. When both are assigned, the two numbers are printed clearly on the copyright page.
An unhyphenated twelve-character standardized code for uniquely identifying sound recordings and music videorecordings, defined by ISO 3901. The first two characters are the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code identifying the geographic location of the registrant; the next three alphanumeric characters identify the registrant; the next two characters are the last two digits of the year of registration; and the last five characters are a unique five-digit number identifying the specific sound recording. In the example USPR37300012, the letters US indicate that the registrant is located in the United States; PR3 identifies the registering organization; 73 indicates that the recording was registered in 1973; and 00012 identifies the recording of the song "Love's Theme" by the Love Unlimited Orchestra. See also: International Standard Music Number.
A unique eight-digit standard number assigned by the International Serials Data System (ISDS) to identify a specific serial title, for example, 0363-0277, identifying the publication Library Journal. In 2001, the scope of the ISSN was extended to cover continuing resources in general. The ISSN is usually given in the masthead of each issue or on the copyright page of each volume or part of a series. When a continuing resource undergoes a title change, a new ISSN is assigned. In library cataloging under AACR2, the ISSN is entered in the standard number and terms of availability area of the bibliographic description. The ISSN International Centre located in Paris, France, maintains a Web site at: Compare with local serial control number. 
A numeric code system under development by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) for the unique identification of individual textual works (novels, short stories, plays, poems, essays, articles, etc.), to distinguish them within computer applications and to facilitate the administration of rights. The ISTC differs from most identifiers in identifying a work, rather than a specific manifestation of the work, and can therefore be used to bring together various versions of the same creative output. Click here to learn more about the ISTC.

08 October2016

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