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Tuesday, July 14, 2015

Library classification ·

Library classification 


Library classifications were preceded by classifications used by bibliographers such as Conrad Gessner. The earliest library classification schemes organized books in broad subject categories. The increase in available printed materials made such broad classification unworkable, and more granular classifications for library materials had to be developed in the nineteenth century. Although libraries created order within their collections from as early as the fifth century B.C.,  the Paris Bookseller's classification, developed in 1842 by Jacques Charles Brunet, is generally seen as the first of the modern book classifications. Brunet provided five major classes: theology, jurisprudence, sciences and arts, belles-lettres, and history. 

There are many standard systems of library classification in use, and many more have been proposed over the years. However in general, classification systems can be divided into three types depending on how they are used:   
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Universal schemes:  which cover all subjects, for example the Dewey Decimal Classification, Universal Decimal Classification and Library of Congress Classification
Specific classification schemes:which cover particular subjects or types of materials, for example Iconclass, British Catalogue of Music Classification, and Dickinson classification, or the NLM Classification for medicine.
National schemes:which are specially created for certain countries, for example the Swedish library classification system, SAB (SverigesAllmännaBiblioteksförening).

In terms of functionality, classification systems are often described as:
enumerative: subject headings are listed alphabetically, with numbers assigned to each heading in alphabetical order.
hierarchical: subjects are divided hierarchically, from most general to most specific.
faceted or analytico-synthetic: subjects are divided into mutually exclusive orthogonal facets.

There are few completely enumerative systems or faceted systems; most systems are a blend but favouring one type or the other. The most common classification systems, LCC and DDC, are essentially enumerative, though with some hierarchical and faceted elements (more so for DDC), especially at the broadest and most general level. The first true faceted system was the Colon classification of S. R. Ranganathan.

English language universal classification systems
The most common systems in English-speaking countries are:
Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC)   →LIS Cafe-Home
Library of Congress Classification (LCC)
Colon classification (CC)
Other systems:
• BISAC subject headings, the publishing industry standard for classification that is being adopted by some libraries.  →LIS Cafe-Home
• THEMA subject headings, a relatively new (2013) book classification systems for publishers and booksellers that aims to combine BIC, BISAC and others into a single classification structure for the worldwide book trade.  →LIS Cafe-Home
• Harvard-Yenching Classification, an English classification system for Chinese language materials.
• V-LIB 1.2 (2008 Vartavan Library Classification for over 700 fields of knowledge, currently sold under license in the UK by Rosecastle Ltd.

Non-English universal classification systems
Ø  A system of book classification for Chinese libraries (Liu's Classification) library classification for user    →LIS Cafe-Home
Ø  New Classification Scheme for Chinese Libraries
Ø  Nippon Decimal Classification (NDC)
Ø  Chinese Library Classification (CLC)   →LIS Cafe-Home
Ø  Korean Decimal Classification (KDC)
Ø  Russian Library-Bibliographical Classification (BBK)

Universal classification systems that rely on synthesis (faceted systems)
Ø  Bliss bibliographic classification
Ø  Colon classification   →LIS Cafe-Home
Ø  Cutter Expansive Classification
Ø  Universal Decimal Classification

Newer classification systems tend to use the principle of synthesis (combining codes from different lists to represent the different attributes of a work) heavily, which is comparatively lacking in LC or DDC.          
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Reference: Wikipedia

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